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Text Ç The Scientific Outlook Ð Bertrand Russell

Text Ç The Scientific Outlook Ð Bertrand Russell His thinking on the promise and threat of scientific progress Russell considers three uestions fundamental to an understanding of science the nature and scope of scientific knowledge the increased power over nature that science affords and the changes in the lives This is one of the most genuinely amusing journeys you can enjoy through pages of a book Russell cleverly illustrated the core of the problem we face in this rapidly changing world under the unstoppable development of Science its applications And in a world so fascinated by Science that it lost believing in any other source of values one shall stop to think where we are going whether the path we take will lead finally to happiness or eternal one if you believe in suchHowever I think if the author had inspected wider spectrum of Islamic Heritage especially the books of Al Ghazaly died 1111 AD his views would have changed regarding the way to achieve the truth in the Islamic view The conflict between the spirit of deduction the spirit of induction in Russell words did not exist in the field of experimental sciences in Islamic Heritage and never had been this conflict between A Mosue A scientist because he believed the earth was a sphere not flat for exampleMoreover and in reference to what is mentioned in TECHNIUE IN PSYCHOLOGY chapter I deeply believe that a uick view on Islamic Sufi Heritage in regard to analysis of one's self the powers of instincts and desires the force of habits would render Russell's induction incompleteFinallyI fell in love with the last Chapter Science Valuesfrom which I'd like to uoteThe lover of nature has been baffled the tyrant over nature has been rewardedthe beloved nature has become a skeleton of rattling bones cold dreadfulbut perhaps a mere phantasm The poor physicists appalled at the desert that their formulae have revealed call upon God to give them comfortbut God must share the ghostliness of His creation and the answer that the physicists think they hear to their cry is only the frightened beating of their own hearts

Book The Scientific Outlook

Download The Scientific Outlook Book Ô 228 pages É Danpashley ´ ➷ [Reading] ➹ The Scientific Outlook By Bertrand Russell ➬ – 'A scientific opinion is one which there is some reason to believe is true; an unscientific opinion is one which is held for some reason oth Of human beings that result from new forms of science With customary wit and clarity Russell offers brilliant discussions of many major scientific figures including Aristotle Galileo Newton and DarwinWith a new introduciton by David Papineau King's College London This is a Bertrand Russell deep track that explores how science has affected the world up to 1931 when this was first published and his prophecies of how science would affect the future world His assessments are keen albeit at times seemingly a bit rambling His predictions have proven so far to be a tad pessimistic but they are still great food for thought This book deserves a spot on every Russell reader's bookshelf but it may be a bit non epic for anybody looking for some of Mr Russell's notable and heroic works

Bertrand Russell Ð The Scientific Outlook Pdf

The Scientific Outlook'A scientific opinion is one which there is some reason to believe is true; an unscientific opinion is one which is held for some reason other than its probable truth' Bertrand RussellOne of Russell's most important books this early classic on science illuminates In The Scientific Outlook 1931 Bertrand Russell gives his own view on science what is scientific knowledge? What is the relation between science and techniue? And how would a scientific society look like?It is important to realize that this book was written in the 1920's and whenever Russell talks about science he talks about the science of his own day Nevertheless there are some gems of insight to be found in this bookThe book itself is divided into three parts In part 1 Russell explains what scientific knowledge is He uses the examples of Gallilei Newton Darwin and Pavlov to describe what makes good science It is interesting to note that in Russell's time Darwin's theory of natural selection was deemed to be wrong We can see albeit with hinsight that he couldn't be further from the truth According to Russell the scientific method is inference ie induction and even though this will never be proven to be logically consistent it is pragmatically the only thing that works How do we know this? Well it lets us control nature and turn her to work for us He also outlines the limits of the scientific method and sketches the love hate relationship between religion and scienceIn the second part Russell delves into techniues made possible by then new scientific knowledge He mentions examples such as higher agricultural production due to inorganic synthetic compounds like nitrate the control of pests the use of electricity etc A curious fact is that Russell seems to see a major future for physiological techniues such as embryo selection and artificial insemination He had a sharp mind and with it foresaw many of the ethical problems that plague 21st century Western countries Another thing he foresaw was the mass application of psychological techniues in areas such as advertising education and propaganda I should add that throughout the book Russell seems to believe in the truth of Freud's psychoanalysis and he even ventures to claim that Freud's theory and Pavlov's mechanism of conditioned reflexes and in a wider sense Watson's behaviourism are the same theory in different disguises Freud has been falsified on many accounts; on the points where he was right his argumentation is non scientific and hence has been surpassed by modern explanations For example Freud's emhpasis on sexual drive as psychological mechanism has been vindicated by modern day evolutionary psychology but on entirely different and scientific groundsIn the last part of the book Russell sets out to explain the society of the near future He seems to envision a world government that consists of individuals who long for power the contemplative philosopher has of course no lust to govern and will use science as a tool to dominate the world Russell really goes to great lengths in describing how such a world of articially created societies would lead to eugenics submission of individuals to the whole constant propaganda and education that is mean to create docile and content creatures He leaves room for the most intelligent who of course will be raised differently and will be trained in science gymnastics and will power When of age they will be put to research work and the two classes will not mingle with eachotherPeople are allowed to have sexal intercourse yet they will not create children since the government has sterilized all the lower class workers Only the best 25% of the women and the best 5% of the men will make children This sounds like Plato's Republic in a 20th century dress At the end of part three he even suggests the invention of drugs that will surpass anything we know so far and will leave all human beings in a trance like state of happiness except for the 4 6 hours they have to work Russell's vision of the artificially created society sounds terrifyingly similar as Aldous Huxley's Brave New World he even mentions this book in the preface to the second editionIt is important to realize that Russell's doesn't advocate such a society he only tries to envision a future society run by power hungry individuals who use science to achieve their ends He mentions Imperial Japan Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia as illustrations of where this mindset can lead And rightly so In the last chapter of The Scientific Outlook Russell clearly states that science and values ie ethics are two separate domains The scientist should continue hisher pursuit of knowledge and we human beings should make the right decisions about what we do with the knowledge we possess The key line of thought in this book is the gradual shift in mankind from a search for knowledge to a search for power Mankind originally set out to know the world; with the accumulation of knowledge grew its mastery over nature; this led to an obsession with power Man wants to control nature hence the emphasis on scientific techniue or applied science instead of pure science This can easily spiral out of control since we are just a species of homo sapiens with good and bad sides To end this review I'll let Russell speak for himselfMan has been disciplined hitherto by his subjection to nature Having emancipated himself from this subjection he is showing something of the defects of slave turned master A new moral outlook is called for in which submission to the powers of nature is replaced by respect for what is best in man It is where this respect is lacking that scientific techniue is dangerous So long as it is present science having delivered man from bondage to nature can proceed to deliver him from bondage to the slavish part of himself The dangers exist but they are not inevitable and hope for the future is at least as rational as fear p 202